1967 – Venera 4 becomes the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet
Venera 4 (Russian: Венера-4 meaning Venera 4), also designated 4V-1 No.310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
The probe comprised an entry probe, designed to enter the Venus atmosphere and parachute to the surface, and a carrier/flyby spacecraft, which carried the entry probe to Venus and served as a communications relay for the entry probe.
On the 18th October 1967, it was the first successful probe to perform in-place analysis of the environment of another planet.
Venera 4 provided the first chemical analysis of the Venusian atmosphere, showing it to be primarily carbon dioxide with a few percents of nitrogen and below one percent of oxygen and water vapors.
Extra Note: While entering the atmosphere it also became the first spacecraft to survive entry into another planet’s atmosphere.
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